1. What is the name of this sign?
2. What does it represent?
3. What are the causes?
The CXR shows globular enlargement of the cardiac shadow, sometimes known as the "water bottle sign". This is due to a pericardial effusion. The lungs and pleural spaces are clear. A coronal view on CT confirms a large pericardial effusion:
Causes of a pericardial effusion include:
- Inflammation: following a myocardial infarction, known as Dresslers syndrome, or in rheumatological disorders.
- Infections: viruses, atypical pathogens such as mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Idiopathic: no known cause
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